University of Earth
Projects Overview (Explanations)
Transformative Approaches Project (Explanations)

Table 1: Varieties of decision-making arenas and styles

Transformative Approaches Project


(see commentary)

Table 1 

Varieties of decision-making arenas (and styles)

INTRA-PARADIGMATIC 

"Straight-forward" 

Relatively stable 

"Deciding about" 

Without unstated constraints 

Single value 

Implementation 

Short-term tactical concerns 

Technique/Science

CROSS-PARADIGMATIC 

"Aggressive constraints" 

Relatively dynamic 

"Reactive decision-making" 

Prevalence of unstated (or 

secret) constraints 

Multi valued 

Extension 

Medium term strategic concerns 

Art/Techne

INTER-PARADIGMATIC 

"Fuzzy constraints" 

Dynamically unstable 

"Deciding in response to" 

With and without unstated 

constraints 

Value development 

Anticipation 

Longer term strategic concerns 

Inspiration

META-PARADIGMATIC 

"Holistic" 

Turbulent 

"Incorporating decision" 

Neither with nor without 

unstated constraints 

Value emergence 

Integration/Embodiment 

Atemporal concerns 

Insight

KNOWLEDGE 

RESOURCES 

(Conceptware)

KNOW-HOW DEVELOPMENT 

Education / Training (UNESCO) 

Expertise development 

Skills development (ILO) 

Mass communications (UNESCO) 

Dissemination of knowledge 

Indoctrination 

Arena III

INNOVATION/DEVELOPMENT 
 

Applied research (R & D) 

Knowledge engineering 

(Intellectual exploitation) 

(Propaganda / Censorship) 

Arena VIII

DISCOVERY/INVENTION 
 

Fundamental research 

Research strategy 

Lateral thinking 

Creativity 

Arena XI

APPROPRIATE PATTERNING 

Pattern creation 

Epistemic landscape design 

Pattern transformation 

Morphogenetic patterning 

Guiding metaphors 

Image schematics 

Structural archetypes 

Kairos 

Arena XII

Group C 

Transformative decision-making 

(XI - XII)

HUMAN 

RESOURCES 

(Groupware)

HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT 

Personnel management (ILO): 

Wage scales 

Hiring/firing policies 

Conditions of work 

Public health/safety (ILO/WHO) 

Social security (ILO) 

Population planning (UNFPA) 

Food supply (FAO/WFP) 
 

Arena II

SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT 
 

Dealing with demanding others: 

Competitors / Opponents 

Employee / Labour relations 

Community 

Underprivileged / Foreigners 

Human development 

Social engineering 

(Social exploitation) 

(Collusion/Conspiracy) 

(Subversion/Blackmail) 

Arena VII

RESPONSIVE ORGANIZATION 

Mutuality in decision-making: 

Worker participation 

Self-management 

Social responsibility 

Social Charter (EEC) 

Development with "human face" 

Personal development 

Organizational/Business ethics 

Professional ethics 
 

Arena IX

APPROPRIATE ORGANIZATION 

Organizational: 

Transformation 

Culture design/appropriation 

Images/symbol appropriation 

Symbolic decisions 

Appropriate commitment 

"Projet social" 

Political will to change 

Arena X

Group B 

Innovative decision-making 

(VII - X)

MATERIAL 

RESOURCES 

(Hardware)

RESOURCE OPTIMIZATION 

Operational decisions: 

Commerce/Trade (UNCTAD/GATT) 

Industry (UNIDO) 

Short-term development: 

Resource allocation 

Cost/Effectiveness 

Programmed investment 

Dealing/Bargaining 

Calculated risk 
 

Arena I

ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT 
 

Development (R & D) 

Engineering / Architecture 

Medium-term development(OECD): 

Financial system (G-7) 

Structural adjustment (IMF) 

Agriculture (FAO) 

Commerce/Trade (UNCTAD/GATT) 

Industry (UNIDO) 

(Economic exploitation)(Bribery / "Commissions") 
Arena IV

FUTURE UNCERTAINTY 
 

Long-term investment 

Futures markets 

Risk/actuarial analysis 

Long-term development (UNCTAD) 

Agriculture (FAO) 

Environmental conservation (UNEP) 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Arena V

MATERIAL APPROPRIATENESS 

Appropriate technology: 

Product appropriateness 

Product design 

Sustainable development (UNCED) 
 

Arena VI

Group A 

Adaptive decision-making 

(I - VI)


From Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential

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